Rubbish is basically considered the construction waste generated during the demolition of old buildings. As a consequence of growth in population and business sectors, the demand for multi-storied housing complexes is rising by leaps and bounds. The growing demand for residential accommodation as well as office accommodation in metro cities and other cities are phenomenal and growth of high-rise buildings is remarkable and still reported to be inadequate. The demand for world-class hotels is also in the higher side.
In view of above construction of multi-storied high-rise buildings are growing very fast. A lot of old buildings are demolished to make room for high rise complexes. This demolition activity causes waste generation which comprises chunks of concrete, bricks, electric cables, steel pipe piece and posing a great problem for removal and disposal in a planned and scientific way.
This is generated during two occasions namely:
Generation during pre-construction
This consists of unwanted material produced directly or incidentally by the construction industry or other such sectors. This includes building materials apart from concrete lumps and bricks, such as insulation materials like glass wool, nails, bolts and nuts, galvanized steel pieces, asbestos sheets, electrical, and roofing.
This also comprises waste originating from site preparation activities like dredging materials, tree stumps, and rubble. Construction waste may contain lead, asbestos, or other hazardous substances as well in most cases.
Rubbish generation post construction
Much of the rubbish material is made up of building material like bricks, concrete and would become part of rubbish for various reasons during construction. Observational research has reported that this can be as high as 10 to 15% of the materials that go in the construction of the building, a much higher percentage than the 2.5-5% usually estimated roughly by quantity surveyors and the construction industry. Since considerable variability exists between construction sites, there is an opportunity for reducing the generation such type of waste.
Some of the components of construction waste or rubbish such as plasterboard are hazardous once land filled. Plasterboard break down by landfill pressure conditions releasing hydrogen sulphide gas, that is toxic gas.
Rubbish removal and Disposal Methods
There is the potential demand for recycling many elements of rubbish waste. Often off containers are used to transport the waste. Rubble can be crushed and reused in construction projects, road construction, and backfilling of low lying lands. Waste wood can also be recovered and recycled in paper industries.
Where recycling is not feasible, the disposal of construction waste and hazardous materials must be carried out according to the legislation of relevant councils and regulatory government bodies. The penalties for improper disposal of construction waste and hazardous waste, including asbestos, can reach into the tens of thousands of dollars for businesses and individuals in Australia.
A landfill or rubbish disposal site, rubbish dump, garbage dump or dumping ground is a site for the disposal of solid waste materials by burial. It is the oldest form of solid rubbish removal practice although the burial part is modern. Historically, refuse was just left in piles or thrown into pits. From old days, landfills have been the most common method of organizing waste all over the world.
Some landfills are also used for waste management purposes, such as the temporary storage, consolidation and transfer, or processing of waste material, sorting, treatment, or recycling. Unless they are stabilized, these areas may experience severe shaking or soil liquefaction of the ground during a large earthquake.
All the above dumping places generate dust by wind and air, particularly in cyclonic weather resulting air pollution.
Conclusion: For dust abatement, afforestation of the rubbish disposal site is a bright prospect. Botanist has investigated that certain hardy plants can be planted and cultivated in rubbish dumping yards. Roots of the plant can grip the rubbish material preventing suspension of particulate matters in the air.