Dust collection systems enhance the quality of air within a factory by collecting and removing air impurities like dust particles. The unique factor of dust collection systems is that they collect the pollutants right from the source point itself. Dust collection systems come under the category of ‘filter media’.
Types of Dust Collectors:
This is considered the simplest type in dust collector systems. The systems are called inertial separators because they make use of inertial and gravitational forces to separate the pollutants from the air. The system’s process involves slowing down the airflow so the particles will not remain in suspension with the clean air. Once the air enters the system, the inertial and gravitational forces push the dirty air down in an 180o angle. The forces separate the particles from the air and push them further down to the hopper, which drives the particles out of the system. The clean air is then sent back up to the main outlet where it is released into the factory. One well-known application is using the inertial system as a pre-filtering process for large, hot particles that may harm other systems.
Also known as scrubbers, air washers are designed to improve the process applied by inertial separators. Air scrubbers capture the finer dust particles, which would not agglomerate in inertial systems, and continue to be release along with the clean air. Air washers use a combination of water and air to filter the pollutants. Water is sprayed on the interior walls as well as into the main inlet. A certain amount of velocity gas is used to create a scrubbing action, separating the particles from the air. In the end, the clean air is sent through the main outlet while the dirty liquid is released through another separate outlet. Air scrubbers are well-known for their use in mining industries. They can also be used in applications where materials are crushed or ground in the manufacturing process.
This type of dust collector makes use of electrostatic charges to agglomerate the dust particles. The charges create a force similar to magnetism that relieves the particles of their charges and collect at the grounding plates. To remove the collected dust particles, the electrostatic charges are simply stopped, and all the dust particles flow right into the hopper. What makes electrostatic collectors beneficial is that they can be used for applications with extremely high temperatures. They require a low amount of electricity and can provide 100% cleaning efficiency. Electrostatic precipitators are highly useful in chemical or steel industries where there is high accumulation rate of acids, tars, and corrosive materials.
This type of dust collector is used for industries where there is a large accumulation of dust, and the option of a non-cleanable filter is quite expensive. A bag is used as a filter, which can be removed and cleaned before installed again for operation. The bag has a diameter or a 55 gallon drum, allowing for massive dust accumulation. These types of collectors are generally used in paper industries.
Filter Fabric Distinction:
Dust collectors can also be segregated based on the fabric materials used for filters. The common fabrics used to manufacture the filters are polyester, fiberglass, aramid, polypropylene and cellulose. These fabrics are used for their high temperature and chemical resistance, adhesion to dust particles, and improved dust cake release. Some of the common types of filters used are:
- Baghouse filters
- Cartridge filters
- Pleated filters
Dust collector manufacturers are now preparing for future industry demands. They are doing intense research to design systems that have better air to cloth ratios, user friendly designs, and higher collection efficiencies. With these steps being taken, many industries can look forward to having cleaner and more sterile workshop environments.