Oncoplastic is a surgical method, which is purposefully designed to treat the women with larger busts and breast cancer patients, who are experiencing alterations in original shape and sizes due to chemotherapy, radiation and cancer surgeries like Lumpectomy (Conservation), Mastectomy (partial or complete removal). The surgical process is actually the combination of two clinical methods that include the partial or total removal of torso followed by fixing an implant or a fat and tissue flap from other body parts (like belly, thighs and back) of the patient. The new method is efficiently used as a cosmetic procedure to improve the life quality of patients after enhancing their aesthetic appearance. It takes almost three to four hours for successful execution of this procedure. It requires two surgeons at a time that involve two qualified surgeons, which include an oncologist and a plastic surgeon. Soon after removal any cancer tissues, structural deformities are either filled with either fat tissues and a suitable implant. Technically, it is termed as reconstruction process, which is performed to reform and give a natural feel and appearance.
Initially, oncologist removes the cancerous tissues that can either be superficial and smaller with a total size of few cm and larger and invasive that may lead to total removal of the breast, chest muscles and fat cells. Three incisions are made, one is made around and two others are made vertically and horizontally to the lower side. If a blood supply is difficult to maintain, free nipple graft is placed. Soon after the removal of malignant cells and tissue, plastic surgeon implements cosmetic surgical methods to fix the suitable implant in a patient that had undergone the treatment. In addition to fixing an implant, they carefully align the nipple and areola to perfectly rebuild the natural appearance of the figure. After that, opposing breast is also modified to maintain the overall symmetry. The total recovery time is around six weeks, but it has been observed that people start feeling comfortable and recovered in four weeks.
What are the common methods to perform oncoplastic breast surgery?
It can be performed in several ways, however, the decision mainly depends on the reason, age and overall health condition of the patient. Generally two, techniques are used.
Implant, involves insertion of an implant filled with saline (salt water), Silicone gel or a combination of both. As this procedure does not only involve any donor site to obtain tissues, it is considered as a less surgical technique due to the sole involvement of chest areas. However, in future additional surgeries might be required to rectify a deformation of implants or to treat scar tissues around the implant.
Tissue flap or Autologous necessarily requires tissue, skin, fat and muscles from the donor site like belly, inner thigh or back to reconstruct the bust. The tissues are completely separated from its original blood vessels and fixed to the chest area. Only a well-trained surgeon can perform this procedure as it involves microsurgery techniques to reconnect the vessels to maintain sufficient blood supply.
Summary: Both the procedures are meticulously designed to improve the life quality of sufferers, doctors must pay attention to review every aspect before suggesting any treatment to patients.